Machining of mechanical parts refers to the technical method of machining parts based on parts processing and processing objects. my country started the research on mechanical parts processing in the 1970s and developed it after 1980. Compared with the types, shapes and processing methods of processing objects, mechanical parts manufacturing is a comprehensive and highly applicable discipline, mainly involving metal materials, forming, casting, heat treatment, processing technology, design and manufacturing and other fields.
With the continuous improvement of machinery manufacturing industry and manufacturing technology, equipment, process level and production capacity, there is an urgent need to apply mechanical processing technology in the machinery manufacturing industry. Mainly include metal cutting, stamping, etc.; mechanical parts have simple structure and many processing methods, mainly including turning, milling, drilling, boring, tapping, reaming, threading, reaming and other methods; mechanical parts have high machining accuracy and rough surface. A wide range of degrees, high production efficiency, low material consumption, high quality of parts or complex and changeable shapes are generally carried out by forming or composite processing methods; with good forming force technology, high-speed cutting and drilling are generally used to process complex shapes and require precision. High, complex or cannot be processed by cutting, drilling and milling methods.
1. Metal cutting
Metal cutting refers to the process of machining parts with metal materials as the cutting object. Metal processing can be divided into two categories: turning and milling. Turning can make the cutting of metal materials become the main method of processing metal parts, but the surface roughness of the parts varies greatly and the processing efficiency is low. Milling has the advantages of good forming force and surface roughness, little change in the processed surface roughness, high machining accuracy and good surface quality.
Stamping refers to the processing of parts by stamping and forming, and the process includes: before stamping, during stamping and after forming. The machining process is similar to that of stamping parts. The stamping production process mostly uses the cutting action and extrusion action of the sheet metal to the stamping parts and the metal surface is formed by external force. The forming process is similar to turning.
3. Drill car processing
Drilling rig processing is to use high-speed drilling rigs and special fixtures to drill holes for porous parts. The diameter and feed rate of the drill are affected by various factors, and its machining accuracy is greatly affected by the cutting parameters. In order to improve the machining accuracy of the drilling rig, reasonable fixtures, cutting force and machining deformation should be adopted. The tool and the clamp have good sealing performance; good cutting resistance, small cutting edge wear, etc.; the cutting part of the workpiece has good rigidity and stability; the speed of the drilling rig is more than a few revolutions per minute. There are many types of tools used in drilling and turning, such as rough grinding tools and fine grinding tools. By analyzing the occasions where different tools need to be drilled, such as requiring fast and accurate drilling, avoiding eddy currents in the hole, ensuring the quality of the workpiece, improving the efficiency of drilling, and reducing the cost of drilling.
Turning processing mainly includes preparation before turning, post-processing after turning, common fault diagnosis in turning processing, etc. Before turning, the workpiece should be hot worked within the specified range. Turning methods generally include: turning (or milling), turning, boring (or boring), milling, tapping (or tap) cutting and other forms of turning processing. The size of the workpiece should be determined before turning. When turning, the tool holder is required to be conical or circular to ensure that the turning tool rotates without splashing under the action of good cutting force on the turning surface. Before turning, the size of the cutting tool holder should be selected according to the size of the workpiece. Turning cannot replace milling or boring during turning.